In this article, Carnegie expert
1) the remaking of Arab societies by political violence,
2) the disintegration of the legitimacy and the authority of Arab states,
3) the strong sense of individual empowerment that is sweeping throughout Arab countries.
With regard to point three, a comment by Maha especially caught my attention:
“Mounting brutality inflicted by governments and the closure of all spaces for dissent across different Arab countries are leaving Arab citizens, particularly the youth, with dwindling options to affect change. Perhaps the most virulent manifestation of this sense of empowerment is the Islamic State. Despite an abhorrent agenda and violent tactics, for a large number of the region’s youth, it is the only entity offering an alternative future that they can be a part of building.”
The entire article can be read at this link